The war moves on…

Buitenland

Until a new administration was set up on site and until the Italian stamps previously used were overstamped and converted, for a long time beyond WWII, everything remained the same, both in terms of the old Italian officials, including the fiscal revenue from Italian revenue stamped paper and stamps.

Tripolis (Arabic طرابلس, DMG Ṭarābulus, Greek Τρίπολης ‘three cities’, Latin OEA, Italian Tripoli) is the capital of Libya.

In the 19th century, the Senussi Brotherhood, an Islamic order based in Cyrenaica, sought to gain power. It also formed the core of the resistance after Italy annexed Libya after the Italian-Turkish war (1911-1912). The Italian conquest of Libya took place in three phases. During the first phase, 1911 to 1914, Tripolitania and Fessan were conquered by the Italians, but they were subsequently pushed back to the coast by rebellions. During the second phase, 1915 to 1922, the Italians were granted self-government rights by the Italians. After the fascists came to power under Benito Mussolini in Rome, the third phase followed from 1923 to 1932, during which Italy waged an almost ten-year colonial war, in the course of which – using area bombing, poison gas and concentration camps – around 100,000 Libyans lost their lives, which approx 15% of the total population. In 1934, Italy declared its Libyan possessions a colony of Italian Libya.

Border disputes have already arisen here over the Aouzou Strip in the south with France and its colony of French Equatorial Africa. Italian troops attacked Egypt during World War II, but were repulsed by British troops. From 1941 to 1943 German troops (“Africa Corps” under General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel) supported the Italian units in Libya against Allied associations. By 1943, German and Italian troops had been displaced from Libya. This ended the Italian rule over Libya. The Fessan then came under French, Tripolitania and the Cyrenaica under British administration. From 1943 to 1949 Libya was occupied by Great Britain and France.

Libya first issued tax stamps when it was an Italian colony in 1913 and continues to do so to this day. The provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan as well as the municipality of Tripoli also had separate municipalities until the 1950s and 1960s Revenue.

The African campaign began on September 13, 1940 with an attack by the outnumbered Italian 10th Army from Libya on Egypt occupied by British troops. The British were able to increase their forces by sending troops from Empire countries to a counterattack – Operation Compass – in December, which penetrated far into Libya until early February 1941 and led to the almost complete destruction of the Italian army.

In order to avert Italy’s defeat, Hitler sent the first troop units of the later DAK to Africa to reinforce the Italian troops in the “Sunflower Company” in early February 1941. The first German associations arrived in Tripoli on February 11, 1941.

On February 16, the staff of the “Commander of the German troops in Libya” was formed under the then Lieutenant General Erwin Rommel, who was renamed the “German Africa Corps” a few days later. Rommel had previously distinguished himself as the commander of the 7th Panzer Division during the western campaign. The British Middle East Command in Cairo, already informed by ultra information, expected an attack by the DAK on Agedabia and withdrew its troops there. The first serious battles with Rommel’s troops took place at Marsa el-Brega in early April. This advance was not approved by Rommel’s nominal superior, the Italian commander in Libya Italo Gariboldi.

The DAK nevertheless continued to advance and reached the fortress Tobruk a week later, where several Australian divisions were included, and a little later Sollum in Egypt. As a result, violent battles developed around Tobruk because British troops tried to shock the city and its defenders. Tobruk was subsequently unsuccessfully besieged until November 1941. At the End of July Italian armies and the DAK formed the “Panzergruppe Afrika” under Rommel’s command, whose task was to attack Egypt after Tobruk was captured. In August, the first parts of the “Division z. b. V. Afrika”, the later 90th light Africa division in Libya. The 5th light division was renamed the 21st Panzer Division after reinforcements.

Annotation:
These stamp papers were still unknown to me and that means something and it proves itself again and again, there is no literature and nobody knows anything about other collectors or their collection areas. In addition, the stamp papers are not always listed first at the beginning, but only at the end, and I, as a connoisseur of the stamp papers, ask myself which professional stamp collector is nonsense and why these self-proclaimed and alleged fiscal philatelists always tap again the same historically incorrect listing?

Italian stamped paper before World War II

1925 AFRICA ITALIANA–TRIPOLITANA, Italian revenue stamp paper
Lira 2 (AUMENTO PER ADDIZIONALE) = Increase for additional
TRIPOLI 1939, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA (DICHIARAZIONE = EXPLANATION) LIRA 4

Italian stamped paper during World War II

Tripoli – TRIPOLITANA 6. März 1940, Italian revenue stamp paper
OEA. AFRICA ITALIANA – LIBIA over L.5 = Lire 5

History: OEA = Punic Sphinx from Oea

OEA was a Phoenician city on the coast of what is now Libya. Along with Lepcis Magna and Sabratha, Oea was considered part of the Tripolitana. In fact, it was the capital, and when the other cities were evacuated in late antiquity, Oea was simply called Tripoli, “the three cities”. Some Phoenician monuments have been preserved from the earliest days.

There are indications that the city, although founded by Phoenicians, was expanded by settlers from Sicily, and especially from Carthage, to whom Oea paid tribute, like the other Tripolitan cities. It was 162 or 161 BC. Conquered by the Numidian ruler Massinissa and became Roman during the war against Jughurta. It remained nominally independent, though that independence was soon an almost empty name.

OEA / Tripoli was attacked by Arab armies in 642, but survived the siege for a month. Although Arab sources claim that the city has been finally conquered, it soon appears to have returned to the Byzantine Empire and would only later accept Arab sovereignty.

TRIPOLITANA 20.1.1940, Italian revenue stamp paper
TRIPOLITANA 20.1.1940, Italian revenue stamp paper
Tripoli 30/8/42
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 3

Further battles with the participation of the DAK took place during the British Operation Crusader in Winter 1941/42, with the company Theseus in May and June 1942 and afterwards with El Alamein in Egypt. The German troops were largely exhausted due to the previous heavy battles, the supply connections were overstretched despite Tobruk’s capture. In the second battle of El Alamein at the End of October / beginning of November 1942, the German units were forced to withdraw with heavy losses.

On November 8, 1942, Anglo-American troops (Operation Torch) landed in Morocco and Algeria, resulting in a two- Front war in Africa. This made the situation in the African theater of war more difficult for the German and Italian troops. Germany and Italy therefore moved more troops to Tunisia, where the armored army of Africa had withdrawn. Given the hopeless situation, German and Italian troops capitulated on May 12 and 13, 1943.

Tripoli 4. Febbraio 1944, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA LIRE 2, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 4

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps.

The names of the months in Italian/German/English:

ItalianGermanEnglish
gennaio JanuarJanuary
febbraioFebruarFebruary
marzoMärzMarch
aprileAprilApril
maggioMaiMay
giugnoJuniJune
luglioJuliJuly
agostoAugustAugust
settembreSeptemberSeptember
ottobreOktoberOctober
novembreNovemberNovember
dicembreDezemberDecember
Tripoli 24.6.1944, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA LIRE 2, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 8

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps.

MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI MAL 10.00

Currency in MAL (=Military Administration Lire) Currency: 100 centesimi = 1 Lira (plural Lire).

Tripoli 22. September 1944, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA LIRE 2, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 8

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps.

MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI MAL 10.00
LIBIA Tripoli 1944, Italian revenue stamp paper / Associate Commissioner of the Commune
LIBIA LIRE 2, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 8

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI MAL 10.00
License Tripoli 1944 to 1946 with canceled stamp: ANNULLATO
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 60, 20, 20, 10

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

M.Arkin-Capt. Tripoli 8. May 1944
MUNICIPO DI TRIPOLI MAL 2.50
Complete reverse side with official certificates from 1945 and 1946
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 60

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Tripoli 12. Februar 1944,Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA LIRE 2, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 8
Two fee stamps from the town Hall of Tripoli

Two fee stamps from the town Hall of Tripoli were buried with the inscription: MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI and which are denominated in the currency “MAL”, while the stamp paper with the attached tax stamp was offset with “Lire”

Currency in MAL (=Military Administration Lire) Currency: 100 centesimi = 1 Lira (plural Lire).

The assumption that the Italian lira was replaced by the military administration shortly after the handover of power to the British is not correct, this is probably only the case with the municipal stamps, as can be seen here.

Certificate of Tripoli 1944, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA OEA LIRE 5, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 20

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Offica Anagrafe- Tripoli 19.1.1945
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO Lire 10
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI, DIRITTI DI SEGRETERA 1 Lire
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI, DIRITTI DI SEGRETERA 0,50 Lire
Official stamp: Municipio di Tripoli, Ufficio Anagreto Musselmani (Office of the Anagreto Muslims)
Certificate of 5 Gennaio January out Tripoli 1945, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA O.E.A. Lira 5, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO Lire 20

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Certificate of Tripoli 12. Februar 1945, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA O.E.A. Lira 5, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO Lire 20

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Italian stamped paper after the end of World War II

Certificate of Tripoli vom 11 August 1945, Italian revenue stamp paper
LIBIA O.E.A. Lira 3, AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO Lire 3 und 4

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Certificate of Tripoli 19.12.1945 renewed 1946
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 10 / MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI M.A.L. 20.00, Military Administration Lire (M.A.L.)
Commercial license Tripoli off 31st December 1946
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 60, 20, 10

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

Municipal revenue stamps: MUNICIPIO DE TRIPOLI MAL 2.50
Complete Back side with permits from 1947 to 1950
1947. AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 60

Without occupation overprint B.M.A., the war moves on, everything remained the same, Italian administration, Italian accounting, Italian officials, Italian stamp papers, Italian tax stamps

1948. AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 40, 10, 10 / Now only two of the three Revenues have overprint B.M.A.
1950. AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO LIRE 30 with Overprint B.M.A.
License from Tripoli 1948
1948 Italian revenue stamps with overprint: B.M.A.
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI M.A.L 20.00 and 5 M.A.L.
Two stamps @ 50 M.A.L.
Tripoli 20.2.1950
Italian revenue stamps with overprint: B.M.A. and B.Adm.T. (British Administration Tripoli)
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI 5 M.A.L and M.A.L. 20.00
Tripoli il 23 Febbraij 1950
Lire 40 Italian revenue stamps with overprint: B.M.A. / Cent.5 revenue with overprint: B.M.A. and new value 5 M.A.L.
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI M.A.L. 20.00 and 5 M.A.L.
Tripoli/Bengasi 19.9.1950
AFRICA ITALIANA MARCA DA BOLLO Cent.10 with overprint: B.M.A. and 10 M.A.L. / MINISTERO AFRICA ITALIANA GABINETTO
RINNOVATA la licenza stessa per I`anno 1951, Tripoli 10.11. 1950
Lire 40 Italian stamps with overprint: B.M.A. / Cent. 5 with overprint: B.Adm.T. and M.A.L. 5
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI 5 M.A.L. and M.A.L. 20.00
MUNICIPIO DI TRIPOLI 100 M.A.L.

Libyan stamped paper

Libya is since 1951 an independent state and was until 1969 a kingdom.

AL MUNICIPO DI TRIPOLI 1953
MUNICIPAL REVENUES over 5,10, 50 and 200 Mils
Revenues over 2, 2x 40 and 50 Mils

Note: such stamped paper from Libya has so far remained unknown to me and probably hasn’t been listed yet, has it? Information is welcome.

Quelle: Infos Wikipedia Freie Enzyklopädie, Wolfgang Morscheck Bad Säckingen Germany

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